1. Biological reasons
Some reasons women need more time in the toilet are biological. About half of the female population is of menstruating age (between 12 and 52) and of those, at least 20% will be menstruating at any one time.
Menstruation means women have to deal with other bodily functions in addition to the usual reasons for using a toilet (number ones and twos). Getting pads or tampons out of a bag (or using the vending machine if one is available), unwrapping them, placing them and disposing of the used materials, add to the length of time a woman needs to occupy a cubicle.
Women are more likely to have certain health conditions that force them to empty their bladders. These include cystitis, a type of urinary tract infection caused by bacteria. These are more common in women because the bacteria responsible have less distance to travel from outside the body to the bladder.
Such conditions may also require use of incontinence aids with the same time-consuming unwrapping and disposal requirements as menstrual supplies. Pregnancy at all stages also means more frequent trips to the toilet.